Essay Outlines

            Outlining is the first step to take before writing  a well-structured essay and for conveying your ideas and arguments in a well-organized way.  If you pick up your pen and start writing without prior thought, while you progress through your writing, you may feel that you are missing some points, or you are stuck. To prevent that feeling, you need to categorize  the points you wish to  focus on, plan your writing process before you proceed to the writing phase.
Before we go further, you can watch this video to better understand how to develop a paragraph. Below, I will be providing you with some essay outlines to guide you through your essay-writing process.

  1. Argumentative Essays

The purpose of writing an argumentative essay is to state on which side you make your stand in a debate, justify your claims with supporting details by giving examples and then refuting the arguments of the opposite side. To achieve this purpose, you can structure your essay in a frame like the one below.

Introduction:

-Detailed description of the issue
-Thesis statement detailing your point of view.

Body 1:

-1st Main Idea
-Supporting details for your claim
-Examples/evidence to better support your argument

Body 2:

-2nd Main Idea
-Supporting details for your claim
-Examples/evidence to better support your argument

Body 3:

-Define the arguments of the opposite side
-Refute their argument by stating your reason
-Supporting details for your reason
-Example/evidence to better support your reason

Conclusion:

-Re-clarification of the issue
-Summing up your ideas by stating the pros and cons of the issue

 

 

  1. Advantages-Disadvantages Essay

The purpose of writing an advantages-disadvantages essay is to state the pros and cons of a case, an application or a system in an objective manner. The main difference of advantages-disadvantages essays from argumentative essays is that you don`t take sides because there is no point in discussing whether the advantages or disadvantages outweigh one another. The formation of this essay type is relatively easier than that of an argumentative essay because there are only two topics to talk about. Here is a  sample backbone of an advantages-disadvantages essay.

Introduction

-Detailed explanation of the object that is to be talked about;
-An objective thesis statement

Body 1:

-Topic sentence stating the advantages of the issue
-Supporting details for points you provide
-Examples/evidence to the points
(Here you can go point by point. Complete both processes for each point you discuss)

Body 2:

-Topic sentence stating the disadvantages of the issue
-Supporting details for points you provide
-Examples/evidence to the points
(Here you can go point by point. Complete both processes for each point you discuss)

Conclusion:

-Re-clarification of the issue that you have talked about so far
-Stating both the advantages and the disadvantages
-Closing your essay without taking sides

 

  1. Comparison-Contrast Essay

The main purpose of writing a comparison-contrast is to make a choice by comparing two items of the same kind. You need to compare these two items in terms of at least 3 points. In this essay type you can form your essay in two distinct ways.

 

Introduction:

-Detailed explanation of the topic that is to be discussed further
-An objective thesis statement stating your points in terms of which you will compare two items

1st Way

Body 1:

-Topic sentence delivering your first criterion in terms of which you will compare the items
-Examining the first item according to your first criterion
-Examining the second item according to your first criterion

Body 2:

-Topic sentence delivering your second criterion in terms of which you will compare the items
-Examining the first item according to your second criterion
-Examining the second item according to your second criterion

Body 3:

-Topic sentence delivering your third criterion in terms of which you will compare the items
-Examining the first item according to your third criterion
-Examining the second item according to your third criterion

2nd Way

Body 1:

-Topic sentence in which you state you will examine the first item according to three criteria
-Examining the first item according to the first criterion
-Examining the first item according to the second criterion
-Examining the first item according to the third criterion
(Do not forget to strengthen your comparison with supporting details and examples/evidence)

Body 2:

-Topic sentence in which you state you will examine the second item according to three criteria
-Examining the second item according to the first criterion
-Examining the second item according to the second criterion
-Examining the second item according to the third criterion
(Do not forget to strengthen your comparison with supporting details and examples/evidence)

Conclusion:

-Re-defining both items that you have compared and your criteria
-Summing up your comparison process shortly by stating your choice

  1. Problem Solution Essay

In this type of essay, you talk about a problem and try to generate solutions for the issue. Forming this essay type is again relatively easy as there are no complex structures that you need to think about. You can write a problem solving essay according to this simple outline.

Introduction:

-Detailed explanation of the problem
-Thesis statement delivering your solutions that you are going to offer in the following paragraphs

Body 1:

-Topic sentence in which you will offer your first solution
-Justification and supporting details for your solution
-Examples/evidence for your solution

Body 2:

-Topic sentence in which you will offer your second solution
-Justification and supporting details for your solution
-Examples/evidence for your solution

Body 3:

-Topic sentence in which you will offer your third solution
-Justification and supporting details for your solution
-Examples/evidence for your solution

Conclusion:

-Re-defining the problem
-Summing up your solutions for the problem

 

 

  1. Cause and Effects Essay

The aim of writing cause and effects essay is to provide the causes and effects of a situation. Probably, this essay type has the greatest number  different formations as there are three options to form your essay.

Introduction:

-Detailed definition of the situation
-Thesis statement defining your causes and effects and how you are going to discuss the issue

1st Way 

Body 1:

-Topic sentence stating the causes
-Detailed discussion of all the causes
-Supporting detail
-Examples/evidence

Body 2:

-Topic sentence stating the effects
-Detailed discussion of all the effects
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

2nd Way

Body 1:

-Topic sentence stating the first cause
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

Body 2:

-Topic sentence stating the second cause
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

Body 3:

-Topic sentence stating the third cause
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

3rd Way

Body 1:

-Topic sentence stating the first effect
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

Body 2:

-Topic sentence stating the second effect
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

Body 3:

-Topic sentence stating the third effect
-Supporting detail
-Example/evidence

Conclusion:

-Re-explanation of the issue
-Summing up your discussion

Important Points in Writing

  • The most important thing about writing is that you cannot write an essay right off. Most of the students try to write their essays without planning and outlining their essays first and get lost at one point or deviate from their path. To eliminate this problem, you need to plan and frame your essay before writing.
  • There is never one way to convey your ideas while writing. Think clearly about what you want to say and find a way in which you feel yourself most comfortable.
  • Learn why you are writing an essay and define your goals clearly. Never start writing with vague ideas and goals.
  • If you are not familiar with the topic, read or watch something about the topic and take notes before writing.
  • Some words usually go together with certain words. Words that usually go together are called collocations. Consult a collocations dictionary about common words to learn how to use them.
  • Do support your ideas with details and examples and never leave an idea untouched in a paragraph. Moreover, do not end a paragraph with a new idea because each new idea requires further clarification and support.
  • Try to use words and phrases that you know well. Inevitably, there will be times when you need to write some words whose usage you are not very sure about. Try to limit the number of these wordsand find a way to express your idea in words that are more familiar to you.
  • Learn how to use conjunctions well because they help you connect your ideas. Essays without proper conjunctions are very difficult to understand. The reader may not see the connection that you thought you made. You should always think about making the grader’s/reader’s job easier, not harder.
  • When writing the conclusion part, keep in mind that you should not talk about an example or an idea that should have been mentioned in the body part. It is not the time for different ideas and examples; it is time to wrap up your essay.

YADYOK Assistant
Sinan Çakmak
Thanks are due to Kaan Gökçe for contributing to the work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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