The Barnum Effect: Have you ever visited a fortune-teller or read a horoscope? Although at least most people are familiar with such things, I would not feel very comfortable  saying that most of those people are aware of the fact that these claims are so vague and general that they can apply to others as well. They choose to believe in these statements which are written on the horoscope column of a newspaper or articulated by a fortune teller. But, why? This is the place where The Barnum Effect, so-called Forer Effect, kicks in. Forer conducted an experiment with his 39 psychology students by giving them a brief personality vignette and asking them to rate its accuracy. Overall, each student rated their vignette around 4.26 out of maximum score of 5; namely, they found that statements on the paper were accurate for their personality. Oh, I am so sorry that I forgot to say that they were given the same vignette …



  • What is BARNUM EFFECT? What does BARNUM EFFECT mean? BARNUM EFFECT meaning, definition & explanation

  • Barnum Effect and Fortune Telling Tricks


Reading Material:

  • We’ve Got Something for Everyone: The Barnum Effect

  • A really quick course to have


Writing Task: After you complete your research, try to write an essay defining the characteristics of The Barnum (or Forer) effect. You can also discuss the causes and effects of this by giving examples which you can see in the videos and the texts.


YADYOK Assistant
Sinan Çakmak