1. Please underline both the relative pronouns and reduced forms of adjective clauses.

The Samurai were the members of the Japanese military class. They were the warriors employed by the feudal lords of Japan, known as the ‘Daimyo’. They lived by a unique code of ethics called “Bushido” or the “Way of the Warrior”. The import of their philosophy was to remain loyal to one’s master, maintain a rigid self discipline, and behave ethically. One of the well-known facets of these ethics is the ritual of suicide after a defeat, where they cut their stomach with their own sword. This is known as ‘Seppuku’ or ‘Hara-Kiri’. The Samurai used a variety of weapons for fighting, such as bows and arrows, and spears. Their history is well-known for the fighting skills. The Samurai rose to prominence in the Heian Period of Japanese history, which was between 794 AD and 1185 AD. The powerful Daimyo began to hire them to protect their properties. As the Japanese feudal lords grew in power, they continued to fight within themselves for more land and power. This increased the importance of the Samurai. In 1192, a new military government was established by Minamoto Yoritomo, who was the ‘Shogun’ (the richest and most powerful Daimyo in the land) and the highest military officer. He also became the ruler of Japan.
In the time between these wars, the Samurai spent time working on farms. The Samurai philosophy is very developed and places a high regard for learning. They studied several topics such as strategy, planning, war craft, and art. Many Samurai warriors were also masters of calligraphy and poetry. Between 1573 and 1603, Toyotomi Hideyoshi united all of Japan under one banner and introduced the caste system. He forced the Samurai to choose between a farmer’s life and a warrior’s life. He also made it forbidden for anyone else apart from the Samurai to wear arms. In this caste system, the Samurai were at the top and were followed by farmers, artisans and merchants. Each caste also had its internal hierarchy.  It was during the time period between 1603 and 1868 that all these changes were implemented, and became well ingrained into the culture of Japan.
During this time, the Samurai were forced to live in castle towns and their income was provided by their Daimyos in the form of rice. For about 250 years from 1615, there was a relative amount of peace in Japan. Most Samurai warriors became bureaucrats, artists or teachers, while the importance of martial skills was reduced. In 1868, with the end of Japan’s feudal era, the Samurai class was abolished.
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-samurai.html

 2. Combine the sentences by using relative pronouns. Be careful with the position of the prepositions. Put commas where necessary.

  • Charlie Chaplin was a huge star in the 1920s. His films were shown in any town with a silent projector.

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  • He continued to please moviegoers of the 1930s. They had become accustomed to “talkies.”

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  • His City Lights was especially popular. Chaplin once again played the role of the “little tramp” there.

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  • Audiences were touched by how much the Chaplin character endures to help a blind girl. He even serves a prison sentence for her.

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  • The best-loved scene in City Lightsshows the little tramp free from jail and standing before the girls’ shop window. She sees only a tramp there.

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  • She presses into his hand a flower that crumbles.  Only as she touches his hand, does she realize that this was the tramp. He had helped her recover her eyesight.

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  • This movie was one of the screen’s last great “silent” melodramas. It included no dialogue even though it was filmed in sound.

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 http://www.uky.edu/AS/English/writprog/ENG104/Assignments/style.htm

3. Find the incorrect sentences and correct them.

  • As Andrea turned off the motorway onto the road to Brockbourne, in which she lived there.

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  • The interior of the car was not cold, but the trees were bending in the harsh wind and the patches of yesterday’s snow still heaped in the fields made her feel chilly inside.

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  • It was another ten miles to the cottage which she lived with her husband Michael, and the dim light and wintry weather made her feel a little lonely.

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  • She was just coming out of the little village of Mickley when she saw the old lady, that standing by the road, with a crude hand-written sign saying “Brockbourne” in her hand.

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  • Andrea was surprised. She had never seen an old lady hitchhiking before. However, the weather and the coming darkness made her feel sorry for the lady, was waiting hopefully on a country road like this with little traffic.

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  • Andrea pulled up a little way down the road, and the lady, who holding a big shopping bag, hurried over to climb in the door which Andrea had opened for her.

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When she did get in, Andrea could see that she was not, in fact, so little. Broad and fat, the old lady had some difficulty climbing in through the car door, with her big bag, and when she had got in, she more than filled the seat next to Andrea. She wore a long, shabby old dress, and she had a yellow hat pulled down low over her eyes. Panting noisily from her effort, she pushed her big brown canvas shopping bag down onto the floor under her feet, and said in a voice which was almost a whisper, “Thank you dearie — I’m just going to Brockbourne.”…

If you want to read more, check the website: http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/reading/hiker.htm

By Elif Bedir

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